Q: During his phone conversation with President Bush, President Jiang expressed Chin willingness to cooperate with the United States in the fight against terrorism. What kind of concrete measures will China adopt to fulfill her commitment? Once the United Stated retaliates, will China open her airspace, share information with the United States, or provide logistic assistance to the United States? Will China participate in the US-led multi-nation forces?
A: As you said, President Jiang talked over the phone with President Bush on 12th September. During the phone call, President Jiang made it clear our position on this incident and the principled stand against terrorism. China and the United States have been in close contact with each other in this field. Both China and the United States are members of a series of international treaties against terrorism. China will earnestly honour its obligations and will be ready to enhance her cooperation with the United States in this area. As President Jiang stressed, we are ready to enhance our dialogue and cooperation with the United States and the international community in the common struggle against all sorts of terrorism. I have not heard of specific requests from the United States. The two sides are discussing about cooperation in the specific fields. I wish to point out that terrorists are common enemies against the international community. They must be punished by law. At the same time, we hold that anti-terrorism measures should be based upon the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and other norms governing international relations.
Q: Do you have any further information on the Chinese casualties in the terrorist attacks on the United States?
A: In recent days, diplomats from Chin Embassy in the United States, Consulate Generals in New York and other US cities had visited US hospitals and universities and kept in close contacts with American institutions and overseas Chinese communities to follow the latest development. So far, we have not received new reports on Chinese causalities. In addition, Tan Xuelei, a friend of Mr. Chen Xiaobing, who was reported dead by his family earlier on, informed us that the September 13th report of Chen’s death was a misinformation. Mr. Chen himself made a phone call on September 16th, reporting that he is now safe. He was stuck in the basement of the office, before being rescued.
The Chinese Government and Chin Embassy and Consulate Generals in the United States deeply care for the safety of our compatriots from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan during the attacks in the United States. At the request of Foreign Ministry Commissioner’s Office in Hong Kong, Chin Consulate General in New York has offered assistance in tracking down the plight of HK compatriots. It has been found that, in the list of names provided by the Hong Kong SAR Government, three compatriots from Hong Kong are missing, namely Huang Shaoxiang, Dong Zhengping and Shen Shihuang (pinyin spelling). We have been in touch with the families of Huang and Dong. The Chinese Embassy and Consulate Generals in the United States are also ready to offer necessary assistance to our compatriots from Taiwan in the United States.
Q: If the United States and the NATO use forces against Afghanistan without the approval of the UN or the vote of support by its Security Council, will China support such an act?
A: On this question, I wish to make three points: First, China opposes all sorts of terrorism and supports attacks on terrorists. Secondly, the attacks on terrorists should be built upon valid evidence. The action should have clear targets, without harming the innocent civilians. Thirdly, it should follow the UN Charter and help strengthen the role of the UN and its Security Council. China is ready to discuss any proposals at the Security Council that will be conducive to the fight against terrorism.
Q: What’s Chin comment of the restoration of ministerial talks between the DPRK and ROK?
A: We welcome the restoration of ministerial talks between the DPRK and ROK. The North and South sides of Korea are the main parties to the Korean question. The Korean question should ultimately be resolved through dialogue and cooperation between the North and the South. China supports the positive efforts of the North and the South to promote North-South dialogue and ease the tension on the Korean Peninsular. We support the efforts of the North and the South to ultimately achieve independent peaceful reunification.
Q: Is there a refugee crisis along Chin border with Afghanistan? Japan has discovered terrorists. Has China found any?
A: The Afghan refugee problem is a problem long waiting for a solution. At the moment, there is no refugee wave along Chin border with Afghanistan. I believe that the international community does not wish to see further deterioration of the situation in the region, leading to a new refugee crisis.
On your question of terrorists in China, I have made it clear during my last press conference that we are totally capable of dealing with terrorism. I wish to use this opportunity to brief you on the ongoing Symposium on ASEM Law Enforcement Organs Cooperation in Combating Transnational Crime. The agenda of the meeting is related to your question.
The First Session of the Symposium on ASEM Law Enforcement Organs Cooperation in Combating Transnational Crime is being held from 17 to 19 September in Beijing. Nearly 200 delegates from 25 member countries of the Asia Europe Meeting (ASEM) and the EU attended the meeting. The Symposium aims at enhancing cooperation among law enforcement agencies from Asia and Europe to effectively crack down on increasing rampant transnational crime and maintain regional and international peace and stability. The meeting will mainly seek ways to prevent and fight transnational economic crimes, international terrorism, illegal smuggling and trafficking. The meeting will also explore effective mechanism and measures of cooperation against transnational crimes and seek better coordination among the law enforcement agencies among the member states.
International terrorism endangers international peace and security, threatens social stability, economic development and the safety of life and property. Countries of the world have come to realize that international terrorism is a transnational crime in disregard of its objectives.
The Chinese Government resolutely opposes and strongly condemns all sorts of international terrorism. China has become a member of a series of anti-terrorist conventions, such as the Tokyo Convention, Hague Convention, Montreal Convention and the Convention on Prevention and Punishment against Crimes of Infringement to Internationally Protected Personnel and Diplomatic Representatives. On the basis of these conventions, China is conducting effective anti-terrorist cooperation. After becoming a member of the Interpol, China has made full use of this channel to exchange information and conduct international cooperation in the prevention and investigation of clues for international terrorist cases and the issuing of notices against violent criminals and hijackers.
Domestically, China has taken a series of measure against terrorism. Legislation is enhanced to provided legal assurance in preventing and combating international terrorist activities. At the same time, effective measures have been adopted in preventing the entry of terrorists and enhancing safety protection of the aviation. China has also improved its consultation and cooperation with neighbouring countries to effectively prevent and combat transnational terrorist activities.
Q: There are anti-US sentiments in China, especially on China’s Internet. They claim that the terrorist attacks on the United States are a tragedy, but the United States deserves it. Does it represent the attitude of the Chinese Government?
A: The remarks by some individuals on China’s Internet obviously do not represent the attitude of the Chinese Government. The attitude of the Chinese Government is reflected in the telegram from President Jiang to President Bush. It is reflected in the phone conversation between President Jiang and President Bush on the evening of 12 September. It is reflected in the phone conversation between Vice Premier Qian and US Secretary of State Powell. It is also reflected in the letter from Foreign Minister Tang to Mr. Powell. The attitude of the Chinese Government is clear-cut. As the spokesman of the Foreign Ministry, I myself have also elaborated on many occasions the position and attitude of the Chinese Government. What represent the attitude of the Chinese Government and people? What represent the views of some individuals? It is quite clear from here. There should not be any misinterpretations.
Q: It is reported that Sino-Pakistani border has been closed. Could you please confirm. The United States calls for anti-terrorist cooperation. I wish to know if China is satisfied with US policies towards terrorist acts in Tibet and Xinjiang?
A: On the first question, I have no information on it.
On the second question, the September 11th Incident has demonstrated that terrorism has become a common challenge to the international community. China, like other members of the international community, opposes all sorts of terrorism. In this field, there should be no double standards. All terrorism should be cracked down. International cooperation should be enhanced. As Vice Premier Qian made it clear during the phone conversation with Mr. Powell, we always oppose all sorts of terrorism. We call for international cooperation against terrorism.
Q: Does China believe that the Taliban or bin Laden has links with the splittists in Xinjiang? Have they provided any assistance to the splittists?
A: We have noticed the relevant reports. The Taliban indicated that it never allows the Xinjiang splittists to use Afghan territory to engage in anti-China activities. The position of the Chinese Government is very clear. We resolutely safeguard national unity and territorial integrity, oppose national separatist, religious extremist and violent terrorist activities. We are also opposed to any outside interference in Chin internal affairs.
Q: Have you indicated that the Taliban has not trained the Xinjiang splitists in Afghanistan? Under what circumstances did Taliban make such a commitment?
A: On 15 September, I issued a statement on the false media report on Chin relations with the Taliban. You can go back and read it through. I wish to add something here: At the request of the Taliban, China had some contacts with it at the working level. China explained to the Taliban our principled position. Some other countries have also done likewise. We wish to stress that we have no official relations of any form with the Taliban. This is very clear and should not be misinterpreted.
Q: Does China wish the US to soften its position on Chin handling of the Xinjiang splittism after the terrorist attacks on the United States?
A: The United States asks for Chin support and assistance in the fight against terrorism. China, in the same token, has reason to ask the Untied States to give its understanding and support in Chin fight against national splittism and terrorism.
Q: As an exchange for support to the United States, does China wish the United States to stop its support to Chin splitism, such as stopping or reducing its arms sales to Taiwan?
A: We have always opposed to US arms sales to Taiwan. There are three joint communiqu
New Delhi, Jan 27, 2006
IRNA (Iranian News Agency)
India-Saudi Arabia-Joint Declaration
Noting that terrorism is a scourge for all mankind and there is a need to intensify and coordinate bilateral, regional and global cooperation to combat and eradicate the menace, the two countries agreed to cooperate to fight this and other transnational crimes like money laundering, drugs and arms smuggling in a sustained and comprehensive manner.
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Saudi King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saudi Friday signed the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on combating crime that would help in the fight against terrorism, extremism and criminal elements, it said.
The MoU said the two countries shall make concerted efforts for an early realization of the proposals to conclude a Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism which is before the UN General Assembly and the setting up of an International Counter Terrorism Centre as called for by the International Conference on Counter Terrorism held in Riyadh in February last year.
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Saudi King signed a landmark "Delhi Declaration" under which the two sides will work for closer cooperation in the field of information and communication technology, agriculture, bio-technology and non-conventional energy technologies.
The elements of the proposed strategic energy partnership between the oil-rich Sheikdom and energy hungry India include reliable, stable and increased volume of crude oil supplies through "evergreen" long term contracts.
It also envisages cooperative and joint ventures, both in the public and private sectors, in the upstream and downstream oil and gas sectors in India and Saudi Arabia as well as in their countries.
Saudi investments in oil refining, marketing and storage in India, subject to commercial viability and setting up of India-Saudi, subject to commercial viability and setting up of India-Saudi ventures for gas-based fertiliser plants in Saudi Arabia are other aspects of the energy partnership.
Also the two sides agreed that cooperation in the field of science and technology, tourism, youth affairs and sport, agriculture research and education, technical education and vocational training and other fields of mutual benefit should be intensified through signing of agreements and memorandum of understanding as necessary, it said.
Reflecting the view that India and Saudi Arabia are developing a broad strategic vision, both countries are determined to work together closely for the welfare and benefit of their peoples and stability in the region and the world, it said.
Both countries recognised the close inter-linkage of the stability and security of the Persian Gulf region and the Indian sub-continent and the need for maintaining a secure and peaceful environment for the development of the countries in the region.
In the field of political cooperation, both sides exchanged views about international developments, especially those related to the dle East and expressed their commitment to the principles of international legality and the importance of maintaining international peace and stability.
The two sides welcomes the ongoing dialogue between India and Pakistan and their continued efforts aimed at settling the outstanding issues between the two countries.
Emphasising the importance of the Beirut Arab Peace initiative and the Road Map, the two sides realised that the complementarity between the two plans would invigorate the peace process in the Middle East and lead to the establishment of a viable and independent stage of Palestine within secure borders side by side with Israel.
With regard to the Iraqi situation, both sides expressed the hope that Iraq would turn a new page in history that will assure its security, unity, territorial integrity and prosperity and respect for its sovereignty and independence.
U.S.-China Counter-Terrorism Cooperation: Issues for U.S. Policy
Specialist in National Security Policy
Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division
CRS Report for Congress
May 12, 2005
The following resolution on terrorism was adopted by a vote of 153-2-1, whereby the only countries which voted against the resolution were Israel and the United States (Honduras abstained).
7 December 1987
42/159. Measures to prevent international terrorism which endangers or takes innocent human lives or jeopardizes fundamental freedoms and study of the underlying causes of those forms of terrorism and acts of violence which lie in misery, frustration, grievance and despair and which cause some people to sacrifice human lives, including their own, in an attempt to effect radical changes:
(a) Report of the Secretary-General;
(b) Convening, under the auspices of the United Nations, of an international conference to define terrorism and to differentiate it from the struggle of peoples for national liberation
The General Assembly,
Recalling its resolutions 3034 (VII) of 18 December 1972, 31/102 of 15 December 1976, 32/147 of 16 December 1977, 34/145 of 17 December 1979, 36/109 of 10 December 1981 and 38/130 of 19 December 1983,
Reaffirming its resolution 40/61 of 9 December 1985, adopted without a vote, and the importance thereof in the consideration of the question of international terrorism and, in particular, in the strengthening of co-operation in preventing and eliminating terrorism,
Recalling the recommendations of the Ad Hoc Committee on International Terrorism contained in its report to the General Assembly at its thirty-fourth session,
Recalling also the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security, the Definition of Aggression and relevant instruments on international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflict,
Further recalling the existing international conventions relating to various aspects of the problem of international terrorism, inter alia, the Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft, signed at Tokyo on 14 September 1963, the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, signed at The Hague on 16 December 1970, the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, concluded at Montreal on 23 September 1971, the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, adopted at New York on 14 December 1973, and the International Convention against the Taking of Hostages, adopted at New York on 17 December 1979, as well as the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, adopted at Vienna on 3 March 1980,
Convinced of the importance of the observance by States of their obligations under the relevant international conventions to ensure that appropriate law enforcement measures are taken in connection with the offences addressed in those conventions,
Deploring the continuation of all terrorist acts, including those in which States are directly or indirectly involved, which spread violence and terror, may result in loss of human lives and material damage and jeopardize the normal functioning of international relations,
Deeply disturbed by the world-wide persistence of those acts of international terrorism which can pose a threat to international peace and security and to friendly relations among States,
Convinced of the importance of expanding and improving international co-operation among States, on a bilateral, regional and multilateral basis, which will contribute to the elimination of acts of international terrorism and their underlying causes and to the prevention and elimination of this criminal scourge,
Convinced that international co-operation in combating and preventing terrorism will contribute to the strengthening of confidence among States, reduce tensions and create a better climate among them,
Reaffirming the principle of the self-determination of peoples as enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations,
Reaffirming also the inalienable right to self-determination and independence of all peoples under colonial and racist regimes and other forms of alien domination, and upholding the legitimacy of their struggle, in particular the struggle of national liberation movements, in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter and of the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations,
Noting the efforts and important achievements of the International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Maritime Organization in promoting the security of international air and sea transport against acts of terrorism, consistent with General Assembly resolution 40/61,
Appealing to all States to take all appropriate steps to prevent terrorist attacks against various forms of public transport,
Urging all States to take effective measures, in accordance with established principles of international law, in order that all acts, methods and practices of international terrorism may be brought to an end,
Mindful of the necessity of maintaining and safeguarding the basic rights of the individual in accordance with the relevant international human rights instruments and generally accepted international standards,
Recognizing that the effectiveness of the struggle against terrorism could be enhanced by the establishment of a generally agreed definition of international terrorism,
Taking into account the proposal made at its forty-second session to hold an international conference on international terrorism, as referred to in agenda item 126 (b),
Taking note of the report of the Secretary-General,
1. Once again unequivocally condemns, as criminal, all acts, methods and practices of terrorism wherever and by whomever committed, including those which jeopardize friendly relations among States and their security;
2. Deeply deplores the loss of human lives which results from such acts of terrorism;
3. Also deplores the pernicious impact of acts of international terrorism on relations of co-operation among States, including co-operation for development;
4. Calls upon all States to fulfil their obligations under international law to refrain from organizing, instigating, assisting or participating in terrorist acts in other States, or acquiescing in activities within their territory directed towards the commission of such acts;
5. Urges all States to fulfil their obligations under international law and to take effective and resolute measures for the speedy and final elimination of international terrorism and, to that end:
(a) To prevent the preparation and organization in their respective territories, for commission within or outside their territories, of terrorist acts and subversive acts directed against other States and their citizens;
(b) To ensure the apprehension and prosecution or extradition of perpetrators of terrorist acts;
(c) To endeavour to conclude special agreements to that effect on a bilateral, regional and multilateral basis;
(d) To co-operate with one another in exchanging relevant information concerning the prevention and combating of terrorism;
(e) To harmonize their domestic legislation with the existing international conventions on this subject to which they are parties;
6. Appeals to all States that have not yet done so to consider becoming party to the international conventions relating to various aspects of international terrorism referred to in the preamble to the present resolution;
7. Urges all States not to allow any circumstances to obstruct the application of appropriate law enforcement measures provided for in the relevant conventions to which they are party to persons who commit acts of international terrorism covered by those conventions;
8. Also urges all States, unilaterally and in co-operation with other States, as well as relevant United Nations organs, to contribute to the progressive elimination of the causes underlying international terrorism and to pay special attention to all situations, including colonialism, racism and situations involving mass and flagrant violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms and those involving alien domination and occupation, that may give rise to international terrorism and may endanger international peace and security;
9. Welcomes the efforts undertaken by the International Civil Aviation Organization aimed at promoting universal acceptance of and strict compliance with international air-security conventions, and its ongoing work on a new instrument for the suppression of unlawful acts of violence at airports serving international civil aviation;
10. Also welcomes the work undertaken by the International Maritime Organization on the problem of terrorism on board or against ships, and the initiative under way to draft instruments on the suppression of unlawful acts against the safety of maritime navigation and of fixed platforms on the continental shelf;
11. Requests the other relevant specialized agencies and intergovernmental organizations, in particular the Universal Postal Union, the World Tourism Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, within their respective spheres of competence, to consider what further measures can usefully be taken to combat and eliminate terrorism;
12. Requests the Secretary-General to seek the views of Member States on international terrorism in all its aspects and on ways and means of combating it, including, inter alia, the convening, under the auspices of the United Nations, of an international conference to deal with international terrorism in the light of the proposal referred to in the penultimate preambular paragraph of the present resolution;
13. Further requests the Secretary-General to follow up, as appropriate, the implementation of the present resolution and to submit a report in this respect to the General Assembly at its forty-fourth session;
14. Considers that nothing in the present resolution could in any way prejudice the right to self-determination, freedom and independence, as derived from the Charter of the United Nations, of peoples forcibly deprived of that right referred to in the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, particularly peoples under colonial and racist regimes and foreign occupation or other forms of colonial domination, nor, in accordance with the principles of the Charter and in conformity with the above-mentioned Declaration, the right of these peoples to struggle to this end and to seek and receive support;
15. Decides to include the item in the provisional agenda of its forty-fourth session.
SPEAKERS LIST/ STATEMENTS
Check statements against delivery !
Saturday, 10th November 2001 [morning] [afternoon]
|11 November |12 November |13 November |14 November |15 November |16 November|
||PRESIDENT OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
H.E. Han Seung- Soo
[Text: English] [Video]
||UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY- GENERAL
His Excellency Mr. Kofi Annan
[Text: English] [Video]
H.E. Mr. Fernando Henrique CARDOSO, President
H.E. Mr. George W. BUSH, President
[Text: English] [Video]
H.E. Mr. Thabo MBEKI
[Text: English] [Video]
His HighnessSheikh Hamad bin Khalifa AL- THANI, Emir
[Text: Arabic English] [Video]
H.E. Mr. Vicente FOX
[Text: Spanish] [Video]
H.E. Mr. Jorge BATLLE IB
STATEMENT BY H.E. Mr. LOUIS MICHEL,
PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN
UNION, VICE PRIME MINISTER AND MINISTER OF
FOREIGN AFFAIRS OF BELGIUM
56th Session of the United Nations General Assembly
New York, 10th November 2001
Mr Secretary General,
Heads of State and Government,
I have the honour today to speak on behalf of the European Union, which congratulates you on your election, which testifies to the esteem of the international community for your country and yourself. I would like also to commend the speed of action and efficiency you have shown, in the face of the tragic events of 11 September, in adapting the agenda for the work of this Assembly.
I would like, moreover, to associate with this tribute the Secretary General of the UN, Mr Kofi Annan.
Mr Secretary General, your re-election had already drawn attention to the unanimous appreciation of the Member States for your exceptional qualities as a manager, politician and humanist. The Nobel Committee paid an even wider tribute by awarding you the Nobel Prize for Peace. The United Nations themselves, here at your side, were the recipients of this message of hope, from a world in a state of shock appealing to the United Nations Organisation to remain at the center of the international community’s action for peace and development.
(Fight against terrorism)
It was the fundamental values constituting the foundation of the United Nations which were attacked in so cowardly a fashion right here in New York on 11 September this year, while our host country, several thousands of its citizens and nationals of over sixty countries were the victims of a barbaric act of aggression for which no direct or indirect justification can be accepted.
That attack, by its enormity, has opened our eyes to the worldwide threat that terrorism has become. It is our open, democratic, tolerant and multicultural societies which have been attacked through the United States. The terrorist threat must be hunted down in each of our countries, in our various regional organizations and, at world level, through the United Nations.
The European Union has most categorically condemned the 11 September attacks, and the fight against terrorism is more than ever one of our priority objectives. The Union has declared its total solidarity with the United States. It has reaffirmed its unreserved support for the military action undertaken in the name of legitimate defense and in conformity with the United Nations Charter and Resolution 1368 of the United Nations Security Council.
On 21 September, an Extraordinary European Council adopted an action plan for an unprecedented campaign against terrorism. The plan contains a number of specific measures intended to enhance judicial and police cooperation, including in particular the introduction of a European arrest warrant. It also includes measures to put an end to the financing of terrorism and to improve air security. The European Council also acknowledged that the fight against terrorism requires greater participation by the Union in the efforts of the international community to prevent and stabilize regional conflicts. By developing the Common Foreign and Security Policy and bringing the European Security and Defense Policy into operation as soon as possible, the Union will be at its most effective.
At world level too, a fresh impetus needs to be given to the fight against terrorism, and the United Nations naturally has a central role to play in the development of a coordinated and diversified strategy. We warmly welcome the major steps which have already been taken to that end.
The most remarkable was the adoption of Resolution 1373 by the Security Council on 28 September. The European Union and its Member States are already committed to rapid enactment of the measures needed for its implementation. We call upon all countries to cooperate actively with the follow up system set up by the Security Council, and we reiterate our readiness to provide aid in doing so to any countries which may have technical difficulties in meeting its requirements.
It is also essential that all States ratify without delay the twelve Conventions concerning the fight against terrorism and apply all their provisions. The United Nations Convention on the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism is a decisive aspect of international action and needs to be speedily signed and ratified.
Lastly, the European Union welcomes the recent progress made in negotiating a General Convention on international terrorism, on the basis of the draft submitted by India. The remaining difficulties must now be dealt with as soon as possible so that this instrument can be put up for signing early next year.
(Promotion and protection of human rights and democracy)
The efforts we are making to combat terrorism must form part of overall endeavours to build a better world, a world in which human dignity is sacrosanct, in which human rights and fundamental freedoms are fully respected.
The promotion and protection of human rights and an attachment to the principles of democracy and the rule of law are essential components of the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy and of its development cooperation and external relations. The European Union will actively pursue its work on consolidating human rights and fundamental freedoms, with insistence in particular on the universal, indivisible and interdependent character of all human rights. It will continue to support the efforts made by the Secretary General to integrate human rights into United Nations activities, at all levels and in all fora, and to cooperate with all UN human rights mechanisms.
(Establishment of the International Criminal Court)
The European Union welcomes the imminent realization of the much awaited establishment of the International Criminal Court. The Union sees this as being of prime importance and urges all States which have not yet done so to accede to the Rome Statute as soon as possible. More than ever, we need a universal and permanent court capable of sanctioning the most serious violations of international humanitarian law and human rights and thus contributing to peace and security in the world. It is vital that the United Nations give effective support to the establishment of the Court.
(Protection and promotion of the rights of the child)
Following the tragedy of 11 September, the Special Session of the General Assembly on the ten year review of the World Summit for Children had to be postponed. However, until it is held we need to keep up the momentum developed in the preparatory discussions. We must continue to integrate the specific dimension of the child into our actions and strive to ensure that every child’s life is free from terror, the horrors of war, abuse and exploitation, hunger and poverty.
(Full realization by women of their human rights)
The European Union is resolved to continue the fight against all forms of discrimination and violence against women and to ensure that all countries take strong measures to apply the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women. Women must be able to enjoy their human rights in full, on an equal footing with men. Girls must have the same opportunities as boys, in particular in education and access to social services. The European Union insists that there must be equal rights to property, credit facilities and social services, including reproductive health services. It is in the interest of everyone that women should be able to participate fully at all levels in economic and political life.
The Union stresses the importance of implementing Security Council Resolution 1325 and the special attention which must be given to the participation and full association of women on an equal footing in all endeavours to maintain and promote peace and security.
(Fight against racism)
We must also vigorously pursue our essential fight against the racist excesses, discriminatory tendencies and intolerance which are daily realities throughout the world. The World Conference on Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Intolerance has shown us the way. It has also enabled us to advance discussion on the causes and origins of racism and to acquire a new perception of our past. What matters now is the will to close the darkest chapters of our history so that we can build a new relationship based on mutual respect, solidarity and partnership.
The terrible humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan holds the attention of the international community every bit as much as the political, diplomatic, military and economic aspects of the situation in that country. It is the first time that the international community has adopted such a global approach in an armed conflict. We are convinced that it is the best, if not the only, means to plan an effective way out of the crisis. The coordination of aid efforts, chiefly on the ground and as part of the range of actions undertaken by the United Nations, remains essential.
Emergency humanitarian aid to Afghanistan constitutes an absolute priority of the Union, which has undertaken to mobilize an aid package of over EUR 320 million without delay. The Union expresses its concern at the difficulties regarding access and the convoying of humanitarian aid in Afghanistan. It supports the efforts of the United Nations. Specialized Agencies, the ICRC and all the humanitarian organizations in seeking practical and flexible solutions. It also calls on the countries of the region to facilitate by all possible means humanitarian operations to deal with new influxes of Afghan refugees.
The European Union recognizes the vital role of the UN in seeking a peace plan for Afghanistan. It intends to support the initiatives of the Secretary”General and of his Special Representative and to make a constructive contribution to them, both with regard to the pursuit of an internal political solution and to a plan for rebuilding the country. The Union also stresses the importance of the regional dimension of stabilization in Afghanistan.
We must make contributions that are sufficient to ensure that the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs functions efficiently. The European Union attaches particular importance to the provision of aid to persons displaced within their countries. We therefore welcome the fact that a unit has been established within the Secretariat to cater for their specific needs. Following the recent attacks against humanitarian aid personnel, the European Union can only call once again for a strengthening of the arrangements, particularly those of a legal and financial nature, for guaranteeing the safety and security of humanitarian aid workers and UN workers in general.
(Promotion of disarmament and non-proliferation)
More than ever, disarmament and non proliferation form the cornerstones of any peace and security structure and must therefore be subject to binding multilateral norms. It is against this background that we wish to strengthen non proliferation regimes, promote the rapid entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and strengthen the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. We must also combat the proliferation of ballistic missiles and the illicit trade in light weapons and continue to work for the complete elimination of antipersonnel mines.
(Peacekeeping arid maintenance of security)
With regard to peacekeeping, the United Nations has shown in the past year that it was better equipped and better organized than in recent times. By way of example, I should like to mention the operations in East Timor, Eritrea and Sierra Leone. Thus some progress has already been made, on the ground, in implementing the recommendations of the Brahimi report. However, much remains to be done, and the European Union will continue to give active support to improving peacekeeping capabilities and advocate that the Organization receive the resources necessary to enable it effectively to discharge its increasingly complex responsibilities.
In order to resolve differences of opinion, consolidate peace and prevent a resurgence of conflicts, a comprehensive, long term approach is required. The European Union, which is currently establishing its own military and civil crisis management capability, is actively engaged in strengthening its cooperation with the United Nations and other international organizations in the area of conflict prevention, crisis management, humanitarian aid, post conflict reconstruction and long term development.
The Balkans, a region so close to our countries, remains at the center of the European Union’s external action. We resolutely maintain our commitment to contribute there to building an area of security, prosperity and democracy where multi ethnic societies are free to flourish. While the progress made has been remarkable and encouraging, the situation in many cases remains fragile. The international community must remain vigilant and not let extremists, of whatever kind, use violence to destroy the stabilization work carried out.
The European Union remains gravely concerned by the situation in the Middle East and continues to act on a daily basis, in conjunction with other States, to persuade the parties to put an end to the infernal cycle of violence. Everyone must realize that there is no alternative to the peace process. The recommendations of the report of the Fact Finding Committee ("Mitchell Report") should be implemented without delay and efforts concentrated on urgently opening up the prospect of a peaceful solution.
The European Union finds the status quo in Cyprus unacceptable. We would express our disappointment at the unjustified decision of the Turkish side to decline the Secretary General’s invitation to pursue negotiations. We continue to support the Secretary General’s endeavours to arrive at a comprehensive and lasting settlement of the Cyprus question in accordance with the relevant Security Council resolutions.
The scale of the dramas witnessed on the African continent calls for resolute action on our part, at all levels, aimed at tackling the direct and structural causes of the conflicts. Conflicts in Africa have become increasingly complex and their cross border effects more and more destructive. The crises in the Great Lakes region of West Africa, as well as in Zimbabwe and the Horn of Africa, call for increased vigilance on the part of our organization.
These crises also show the need for an international approach that is comprehensive and integrated. We gave an enthusiastic welcome to the launch of the new African initiative at the Lusaka Summit. The European Union expressed its willingness to respond and has already entered into a dialogue at the highest level with the African Union.
(Fight against poverty and promotion of sustainable development)
Together, at the Millennium Summit, we pledged to achieve a set of development objectives. It is an ambitious project which involves, inter olio, good governance in each country and at international level.
The Union underlines the need for a strengthened partnership between rich countries and poor countries to achieve the development objectives of the Millennium Declaration. That partnership entails obligations and joint but varied efforts on the part of all countries.
Firstly, we must make every effort to eradicate poverty. New, concrete commitments were made at the 3rd Conference on the Least Developed Countries in Brussels last May. The European Union committed itself to untying aid, to opening up its markets by means of the "Everything but arms" initiative and to the full financing of the HIPC initiative. It is now a question of finalizing the follow up mechanisms of the Programme of Action. The European Union will also continue to give priority to the development of Africa.
Two major international conferences will present us with the opportunity to take up the challenges and achieve the principal objectives of the Millennium Declaration. At the Financing for Development Conference to be held next March in Monterrey, Mexico, we shall attach importance to improving cooperation between all the development actors, using resources more effectively and mobilizing them better.
At the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in October 2002, we wish to promote the sustainable use and management and the protection of the natural resources which underlie social and economic development. We also wish to integrate actions aimed at the environment and poverty, make globalization serve the needs of sustainable development and promote better ways of managing public affairs and participation. The European Union would like to explore with its partners the scope for achieving a Global Pact on Sustainable Development at the Summit. This Pact should contain commitments both from governments and from the other actors. A Global Pact should lead to concrete action to improve the implementation of sustainable development policies.
We hope that the UN Member States will without delay undertake to be represented in Monterrey and Johannesburg at the highest political level.
The Convention on Climate Change was one of the major results of the 1992 Earth Summit. We welcome the progress made in Bonn and in Marrakesh and we undertake to ratify the Kyoto Protocol rapidly.
We have also just reached an intergovernmental consensus at the highest level on the strategy that needs to be followed to halt the appalling global AIDS pandemic. That is a major step forward, but the urgent and dramatic nature of the problem require us to be more ambitious. We will actively contribute to the creation of a new global Fund to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis and we will play an active role in all the other processes that emerged from last June’s Special Session so that the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS is put into practice by means of concrete measures.
Of the other challenges, the demographic changes that lie ahead are of particular interest to the European Union. The Second World Assembly on Ageing to be held in Madrid in April 2002 will be an opportunity for us to work together to build a society for all ages.
The Millennium Summit, the prime objective of which was to strengthen and give new impetus to the United Nations, allowed us to tackle, at the highest level, the major challenges facing the global community. We must now turn our attention to the process of following up the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government, with all due regard for the lofty and balanced aims of that cardinal text. For that we need to call on reliable data, the existing follow up machinery and processes and the concerted efforts of the various actors in the international community who can help us to achieve the objectives set.
We must also continue reforming the United Nations system as a whole, including the specialist institutions and the Operational Funds and Programs. The strengthening of the Security Council and its comprehensive reform in all its aspects should be pursued with determination. If we want a Security Council capable of responding even more effectively to the major challenges of the moment, we should intensify our efforts.
Mr Secretary General,
Heads of State and Government,
Looking beyond the tremendous and growing complexity of our actions in the world, our debate should highlight this basic truth: if we want to build a world made more peaceful by respect for the law, solidarity and tolerance, we need to strengthen our cohesion in the face of the new challenges that have been thrown down, but also to step up our efforts to promote human rights, eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development.
In this forum of the United Nations we set against the messengers of destruction our common ideal, which will be stronger than hatred and divisions among mankind. That edifice, whose foundations are set in our spirits and our hearts, will be unassailable.
Thank you for your attention
THE REPUBLIC OF
H.E. Mr. Lee Han-dong
Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea
the 56th Session
of the United Nations General Assembly
10 November 2001 New York
Mr. President, Mr. Secretary-General, distinguished delegates,
Before all else, on behalf of the government and people of the Republic of Korea, I would like to convey our deepest condolences and consolation to the bereaved families and friends of those who lost their lives in the horrendous terrorist attacks of September 11. This unprecedented criminal act has posed a grave threat to international peace and security, as well as a serious challenge to human dignity. Such acts of terrorism constitute a crime against humanity and civilization that cannot be justified by any cause.
To forestall the recurrence of such incidents and to eradicate international terrorism, comprehensive and common efforts at the international level are urgently called for. The United Nations is expected to play an important role in these efforts. Immediately after the terrorist attacks, the Security Council and the General Assembly adopted resolutions denouncing terrorism and calling for measures for its elimination. This prompt action, as well as the ensuing debates at the UN, attest to the major role to be played by the Organization in the anti-terrorism effort.
The government of the Republic of Korea will continue to actively take part in the measures taken by the United Nations, including the implementation of Security Council resolution 1373, and will join the effort to free the international community from the scourge of terrorism. At the same time, we will spare no effort in rendering humanitarian assistance to the refugees who have been displaced as a result of the "war against terrorism."
In preparing to co-host the 2002 Korea/Japan FIFA World Cup, we will do our utmost to ensure that the event is held in a secure atmosphere, free from the threat of terrorism.
I stand here with much reminiscence. The Republic of Korea, once one of the major recipients of UN assistance, is now an active contributor to the efforts to realize the ideals and goals of this august body. It is also the country whose Foreign Minister has the honor of presiding over the first session of the UN General Assembly in the new century.
The birth of the Republic and its development thereafter owe a great deal to UN assistance. Indeed, the government of the Republic of Korea was born out of the UN-supervised elections held pursuant to the UN resolution calling for an independent government in Korea. During the Korean War in the early 50s, we were able to defend our country, thanks to the participation and noble sacrifice of the UN forces.
After the war, as the Korean people strove to overcome the devastation of the war and rebuild the country, and further to achieve economic development and emerge as a democracy upholding human rights, we found enormous strength and encouragement in the support and cooperation rendered by the United Nations.
The Korean people will never forget this. We will redouble our efforts to do our share for the cause of global peace and prosperity enshrined in the UN Charter.
Looking back upon the Republic of Korea’s arduous and eventful process of development over the past half century, we see that it is -an exemplary case of all the good that can be achieved when the international community works closely with a people determined to overcome poverty and legacies of conflict to build a better future for themselves.
Ten years have passed since the simultaneous admission of the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to the United Nations. In the intervening decade, particularly during the recent years, much progress has been made in inter-Korean relations. Taking this opportunity, I would like to briefly touch upon the peace process unfolding on the Korean peninsula, an effort for which we seek your continuing support.
The first Inter-Korean Summit, held in June of last year, was truly a historic event not only for peace on the Korean peninsula, but also in East Asia and indeed the world. Before the Summit, the Korean peninsula had remained a lone island where the Cold War maintained its foothold. The Summit initiated the process of melting away that foothold, the icy wall of hostility and confrontation that had thickened between South and North Korea over the past half century. The whole world welcomed the breakthrough, expressing high hopes for peace on the Korean peninsula, as exemplified here by the joint statement of the co-chairs of the Millennium Summit and the resolution of the General Assembly.
Since then, positive changes have taken place on the Korean peninsula. There have been three rounds of reunions by members of separated families. At the opening of the Sydney Olympic Games, the world was moved to see the South and North Korean athletes march in together. The project to relink a railway and road between the two Koreas is now under way. And the first South-North defense ministers meeting was held, with a view to reducing tension and furthering peace.
Meanwhile, North Korea has steadily expanded its diplomatic horizon, establishing diplomatic ties with most EU countries and many others. Such endeavors have been strongly welcomed and supported by the Republic of Korea, which has striven to shore up global support for the Korean peace process.
The goal of our sunshine policy of promoting engagement between South and North Korea is for the two sides to live together in peace and cooperation, in preparation for peaceful unification. The engagement policy is actively supported by the whole world, not to mention the Korean people and key neighbors surrounding the Korean peninsula. North Korea, too, embraced the spirit of peace, reconciliation and cooperation in the InterKorean Summit’s Joint Declaration of June 15, 2000.
The government of the Republic of Korea will continue to do its utmost so that a lasting peace may take root on the Korean peninsula and global peace may be strengthened. We sincerely thank the United Nations and the leaders of the world for the encouragement they have given us so far. We shall continue to count on their steadfast support and cooperation.
The work required of the United Nations in the 21 st century is no less than daunting. Numerous tasks lie ahead of us, such as fostering international peace and security, promoting the,common prosperity of the global village, advancing democracy and human rights, eradicating poverty, combating transnational crime, protecting the environment and enhancing human wellbeing.
Rising to these challenges, world leaders gathered last year at the Millennium Summit to reconfirm their responsibilities and chart a new course for the international community in the 21th century. The Millennium Declaration aims at materializing "a new United Nations" that can effectively meet the many challenges faced by the international community. It should be appreciated that the declaration sets concrete policy goals to free humanity from fear and poverty.
Now the task before all members of the United Nations is to muster the best of their wisdom and strength in devising and implementing measures to fulfill the commitments outlined in the Millennium Declaration. The Republic of Korea will actively cooperate with all other members so that these commitments may be faithfully carried out.
With the end of the Cold War and the passing of the 20th century, "reconciliation and cooperation" has come to define the tenor of the evolving global order. .
However, genuine world peace has yet to be obtained. In many corners of the globe, the threat of terrorism looms large, and conflicts and confrontations caused by ethnic, religious and economic reasons still persist. Far worse, the greatest victims are often the most vulnerable of people, such as children, women and ethnic minorities.
In this regard, I fully support the UN’s efforts to strengthen its capability to prevent and resolve conflicts and deal with their aftermath. The conflict prevention and peacekeeping function of the United Nations is essential for global peace, and the role of the UN in post-conflict peace-building should also be expanded.
Humanity in the 21 st century is at the mercy of rapid and sweeping changes that are unprecedented in the history of human civilizations. At the core of the vortex lie the information technology revolution and globalization.
If we fail to meet the challenges posed by these trends, the promises for peace and prosperity in the 21 st century will not be fulfilled. Member States of the United Nations must gather their collective wisdom and will, so that all members of the international community can enjoy the benefits of globalization and the revolutionary advances in information and communication technology.
Against this backdrop, President Kim Dae Jung proposed to build a "TransEurasia Information Network" at the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting) Summit last year, with a view to galvanizing information exchange and cooperation between Asia and Europe at an unprecedented level.
To narrow the information gap between nations, international assistance is required, particularly in building the information infrastructures and human resources of developing countries. In this regard, greater cooperation and attention from the developed countries is essential.
Furthermore, the effective management of the global economy and poverty eradication in the underdeveloped countries should be placed high on the agenda of global consultations. The stability and transparency of global financial markets should be enhanced by reinforcing the functions of the EMT, the IBRD, and other international financial organizations. The next round of WTO talks should be launched as soon as possible in order to strengthen free trade and the multilateral trading system.
In this regard, I hope the International Conference on Financing for Development, to be held in March of next year, will succeed in devising a comprehensive plan to deal with issues related to poverty and development. We have to bear in mind the lesson drawn from history that fostering the middle-class through poverty eradication can lay a solid foundation for democracy. As far as the environment is concerned, international efforts to protect "Mother Nature" should be carried out in a more effective and substantial manner.
In some advanced countries, the development of bio-technology has reached such astonishing levels as to arouse fear of infringing upon the realm of God. While acknowledging the positive role such scientific advancements may have in prolonging human life and improving the quality of life, we need to prevent them from being misused and becoming an affront to human dignity.
Democracy and human rights are universal values that must continue to be sought and upheld in the 21 st century.
In recent decades, democracy and human rights have claimed many victories around the world. But they have also suffered setbacks. Human rights continue to be abused in many parts of the world, in the form of kidnapping and torture, illegal executions, discrimination and other violations. It is particularly distressing that large-scale and systematic violations of human rights persist in some regions under conflict. Such deplorable acts cannot be tolerated. I sincerely hope that the 2nd Conference of the Community of Democracies, to be held in Seoul in October of next year, will prove -to be a milestone in this regard.
Humanity places great expectations upon the United Nations to meet the challenges of the 21st century and make the most of the opportunities it brings. For this global body provides a unique forum for all the countries of the world to together seek solutions to common problems in the spirit of mutual respect and cooperation.
To rise to the task, the United Nations requires ongoing reform. Its financial and organizational foundations must be strengthened in accord with its expanding roles.
In particular, the reform of the Security Council, given its importance to all Member States, must be achieved through general agreement, with a view to making the Council more representative, democratic and efficient.
The United Nations must stand firmly at the center of the efforts to further spread and consolidate multilateralism around the world, based on the spirit of mutual understanding and compromise. Tolerance and dialogue must be upheld in international relations if we are to make the 21 st century an era of shared prosperity and peaceful coexistence among diverse civilizations.
The Republic of Korea will strive to contribute to the further development of the United Nations, in the spirit of repaying the generosity it has received from the international community.
Befitting the country’s growing capabilities, the Republic of Korea’s contribution to the UN budget is to increase significantly in the coming years, in accordance with the new scale of assessments adopted last year. Next year, it will become the 10th largest contributor to the regular budget of the UN. With troops now taking part in the UN’s peacekeeping missions in East Timor and three other places, the Republic of Korea will also continue to actively participate in the UN’s endeavors for peace and security.
Furthermore, we will share our experiences in economic development and democratization with our neighbors in the global village, and do what we can to bridge the gap between the developing and developed countries.
I am convinced that the United Nations, on the strength of the concerted efforts of all countries represented here, will continue to be a beacon of hope that lights the road ahead for humanity in the 21 st century.
H.E. Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Prime Minister of India
The United Nations General Assembly
November 10, 2001
This session of the General Assembly is being held in the shadow of the barbaric terrorist acts of September 11, which dramatically reminded us that neither distance nor power insulates a State from terrorism. They represented an arrogant rejection of the values of freedom and tolerance, which democratic and pluralistic societies cherish.
Even while uniting the nations of the world in their grief, this terrible tragedy has created the opportunity to fashion a determined global response to terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, wherever it exists and under whatever name.
We in India know from our own bitter experience that terrorists develop global networks driven by religious extremism. Their operations are supported by drug trafficking, money laundering and arms smuggling. Some States follow a policy of sponsoring and sheltering them. They can only be countered through closely, coordinated efforts of the international community.
The UN Security Council resolutions 1368 and 1373 are steps in the right direction, but it requires firm political will of the freedom-loving world to implement them rigorously. The two crucial elements in this would be strict curbs on sources of financing for terrorists and denying them safe havens for training, arming and operation.
We must firmly rebuff any ideological, political or religious justification for terrorism. We should reject self-serving arguments seeking to classify terrorism according to its root causes, and therefore justifying terrorist action somewhere while condemning it elsewhere.
Those that advance these arguments should explain what the root causes of the brutal acts of September 11 were.
India supports the current campaign against the terrorist networks in Afghanistan. We hope that it reaches an early and successful conclusion. That country’s current travails can only end with the establishment of a broad-based, representative and neutral government, which would stop the export of terrorism and extremism. The international community should work towards this even while the military campaign continues, so that we avoid a political vacuum at the end of the campaign.
We must recognize that current structures to facilitate a postTaleban political settlement are unrepresentative and therefore ineffective. Located as it is in Afghanistan’s neighborhood, India’s vital national interests are affected by developments in it. We also have traditionally close links with Afghanistan. This is the basis for our belief that India can play a useful role in this process.
The task of reconstruction in post-conflict Afghanistan also merits the urgent attention of the international community. It would require massive external assistance to create an economic situation conducive to the speedy return and rehabilitation of the millions of Afghans who have taken refuge in other countries of this region. Again India stands ready to join international efforts for this.
We have already announced relief assistance of a million tonnes of wheat, medicines and medical assistance for needy Afghans within and outside the country. We have also pledged 100 million dollars to post-conflict Afghanistan for reconstruction. We are prepared to do more.
Nearly six thousand lives were lost on September 11. But the global economic downturn in its aftermath will take a far larger human toll, mainly in the developing world. The World Bank has estimated that tens of thousands more children will die worldwide and some ten million more people are likely to go below the poverty line of 1 dollar a day.
It is pertinent to reflect on these chilling statistics even as the Ministerial Conference gets under way in Doha to consider WTO issues.
Before we embark on any new initiatives for globalization and sustainable development, we should recognize that political support for them would be determined primarily by the impact of these regimes on poverty.
For most developing countries, the Uruguay Round has done little for economic growth, while poverty levels and income gaps have worsened. Globalization has constrained developing countries in mobilizing public resources for poverty alleviation.
This is why public support for the globalization regime has vanished in developing countries. This is also why we have argued strongly that implementation issues should first be resolved before we try to widen the WTO agenda further. Our public is unwilling to accept another post-dated cheque, when an earlier one has bounced.
Similarly, the movement towards sustainable development has proved a disappointment. Developing countries are unable to realize fair payments for their sovereign biodiversity resources, and traditional knowledge.
The treaties on climate change and biodiversity have also failed to activate the anticipated investment and technology transfers to developing countries.
Industrialized countries have not shown the political will to enhance their overseas development budgets. Multilateral development agencies are also constrained in their resources, of which, in any case, very little is available on concessional terms.
The inevitable conclusion is that for current regimes of globalization and sustainable development to be strengthened – or even to survive – they must re-engineered to generate large-scale finances for poverty alleviation. The passion for globalization has to be tempered by compassion for its victims.
Sadly, this thought has not penetrated into the thinking of the developed economies. Their actions also do not reflect the realization that there cannot be a sustainable revival of their own sluggish economies unless the globalization and sustainable development priorities are re-oriented and anchored in the developmental needs of two-thirds of the global population.
A year ago, I had suggested, in my speech to the US Congress, a Comprehensive Global Dialogue on. Development. The aim of such a dialogue would be to address the highly unstable situation in which one-third of the world’s population lives in luxury and condemns the remaining two-thirds to poverty and want. It is a fertile breeding ground for political unrest, economic chaos, and social fractures.
India would be happy to coordinate this dialogue, with the immediate objective of mobilizing resources for poverty alleviation programmes in developing countries. A preliminary agenda for the dialogue could include:
- The accelerated liquidation of external debts of low income and highly indebted countries;
- Poverty alleviation programmes specifically aimed at developing countries facing financial crises;
- Stabilization of international prices of primary commodity exports;
And, most importantly,
Welfare and development programmes for all the world’s needy children, for their nutrition, health, education, and protection from degrading and hazardous employment.
The struggle for equitable development and the war against poverty are as important as our campaign against terrorism and our collective search for security. At a time when an external stimulus has motivated us to unite against terrorism and for security, let us summon an equally strong inner resolve for development and poverty alleviation. They are just as crucial for a global order at peace with itself.
This fundamental and seamless linkage between peace, security and development can be recalled in the sage words of the great Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore:
"From now onward, any nation that takes an isolated view of its own interests will run contrary to the spirit of the New Age, and will know no peace. From now onward, the anxiety that each country has for its own safety must embrace the welfare of the whole world."
More than six decades after the poet penned these lines, they ring truer in our age of challenge and opportunity.
General Assembly Debate 16 November 2001
Russian Federation Statement by H.E. Mr. Igor S. Ivanov
"This session of the UN General Assembly is proceeding under the omen of an unprecedented challenged posed to mankind by international terrorism.
To make it short, the decisive moment has come fo all of us. For the sake of future generations we simply must close the ranks of the international community and set about taking concrete action. The most urgent of them all is undoubtedly a creation of a global sysem to counteract new theats and challenges, first and foremost among which is international terrorism. It is quite natural that this subject was the central one in the course of negotiations between the President of the Russian Federation Mr. Vladimir V. Putin and the President of the United States of America Mr. George W. Bush that have recently took (sic) place in Washington, D.C. , and Crawford, Texas.
A universal anti-terrorist coalition of which Russia is a responsible member has been formed. […]
The large-scale decisions taken by the UN Security Council and the General Assembly in recent months provide a solid political and legal framework for the efforts to neutralize the threat of terrorism, which includes a wide specter of action-oriented anti-terrorists (sic) measures. Now it is important that these decisions are implemented by all States to the maximum extent.
If necessary, the use of most decisive means against terrorists may be permissible, including the use of military force. Such right is granted by the UN Charter.
Russia has also proposed to study a possibility of inclusion in the international law (sic) of a principle of responsibility of States for the failure to take measures against terrorists in their territory or under their jurisdiction."
His Excellency Seyed Mohammad Khatami
President of the Islamic Republic of Iran
The 56th Session of The United Nations General Assembly
New York, 10 November 2001
"The commencement of the new century and millennium was regrettably marred by blood and gloom. In 2001, terror and violence persisted and scores of defenseless innocents became victims of the blind hatred and rage of governments and terrorist groups. One of the most brutal and savage crimes of this range was the terrorist attack against American citizens."
"The decisive, immediate and unequivocal global condemnation of the terrorist attacks of September 11th represents the emergence of a public attitude and common political will all over the world to counter terrorism in all its manifestations, irrespective of motives, perpetrators or victims. The Leader of the Islamic Revolution of Iran spoke of "Jihad against this evil phenomenon" so as to highlight the genuine view of Islarn and the Islamic Revolution vis-a-vis terrorism and violence."
"Regrettably the expectation of the global community of its political leaders to transform this strong public sentiment to a logical, just and comprehensive response to terrorism where its root causes could be addressed has yet to be met.
Immediately after the carnage of 11 September, and in the name of the People and Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, I expressed sympathy with the American nation and all the victims of this criminal act."
"The threat of terrorism should not be underestimated, nor should its devastating consequences be measured only in the visible realm of politics. Terrorism cannot be attributed to any religion or nationality; nor can it be eradicated through rage and violence. Terrorism is the chronic menace of our era, rooted in the mentality of violence, the logic of might and the practice of injustice and discrimination. When spirituality, ethics and fairness find no room in the realm of politics, economy and culture, and when discrimination, marginalization, exclusion and application of double standards push justice aside, the world is bound to face alienation, despair, extremism and lawlessness. And in such a climate, terrorism finds a fertile ground for growth."
"The tragic events in the U.S. could not have happened without utilizing modern tools of technology. Technology is the ultimate achievement of instrumental reason, while for many years, our great thinkers have cautioned us to avoid unconditional submission to instrumental reason, warning of the threats and tragedies that it could generate."
"On the other hand, some of the great thinkers of our time have ascribed atrocities such as fascism to the reign of mythological speculation. They have attributed the emergence of fascism not to the expansion of rationality but to the evasion of rationality and succumbing to the reign of myth."
"The world has yet to overcome the horror and disbelief caused by the malicious terrorist attacks of the 11 th of September against thousands of innocent people, while the most destructive and modern weapons are being used in one of the most deprived parts of the world and against an oppressed and dispossessed people. Once again history repeats its sad experience that war triggers war."
"The American nation has experienced one of the most brutal forms of terrorism, where the blind hatred of terrorists did not even allow the burned up fractured corpses of the victims of the tragedy to be recovered. Today this nation can be seen alongside other nations, who have suffered from injustice and despotism for years and even centuries."
"We should have empathy with the suffering people of our time anywhere: in the occupied Palestine, in the oppressed Afghanistan, in New York or Washington, or in any corner of the globe."
MR. RICARDO LAGOS ESCOBAR
PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHILE IN THE GENERAL DEBATE
OF THE FIFTYSIXTH SESSION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
TO THE UNITED NATIONS
New York,NY USA
10 November 2001
The terrorist attack on New York was therefore an attack on the unity of our nations. It was our values, our security, our faith in a better world based on dialogue and cooperation that were the targets of terrorist fanaticism.
And that is why we have been so close to the United States during this period: its pain is our pain; its grief is our grief; its response to terrorism is our response."
"We salute the Government of the United States and President Bush who, faced with an attack of this magnitude, has managed to contain passions and ito act in a reasoned manner, building a diplomatic coalition never before witnessed in the world."
"The holding of this General Assembly marks a sound defeat for the terrorist cause, which seeks to replace the value of dialogue by the cult of violence, and a renewal of our faith ir] this world forum."
"Let us ensure that this grand coalition would bring security, not only against terrorism, but also against hunger, vulnerability and discrimination. Let us update what we created fifty years ago."
H.E. Mr. Fernando De La Rua
of the United Nations General Assembly
10 November 2001 New York
"This distinction also comes at a moment when the full relevance of the United Nations has become dramatically current, as a result of the criminal attacks against the United States of September 11th. I thus wish to renew our solidarity and commitment with its government and people; it was an attack against us all, against all humankind."
"Global counterterrorism action is an imperative for the international community, enshrined by the United Nations."
"Deliberate and indiscriminate attacks against civilian population, which in times of war are considered crimes by international law, can only be deemed extremely serious crimes in times of peace."
"It is particularly important to note that in the latest conventions furthered by the United Nations it is categorically established that under no circumstances those crimes might be considered political crimes, so that there are no doubts about the obligation to investigate the facts and punish the offenders."
H.E. DR. JORGE BATLLE IBA
Presidente Vicente Fox durante el Debate General
U.N. General Assembly Debate 10 November 2001
"Sin duda, la magnitud y la crueldad de los ataques del 11 de septiembre han puesto de manifiesto la vulnerabilidad de los Estados, as
[Note: Cautious formulation which may leave an exit for future determination of guilt]
of His Highness
Shaikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al Thani
Amir of the State of Qatar
U.N. General Assembly, 10 November 2001
"We are all aware of the extraordinary circumstances under which this session is being held, in the wake of the political situation prevailing in the world after the events of September 11. On analyzing those terrible events We can say that humanity has reached a turning point. Where We go now, depends on how We respond to the crisis We are facing."
"What happened in New York and Washington is unprecedented and almost beyond our imagining. There may be strategic planners who see the events as confirming their predictions, but for the rest of us it would have seemed like fiction. Sadly, the events were all too real and we watched with amazement and horror as we realized the full gravity of those attacks for the future of humanity."
"Dealing with the repercussions of these events should not just be a matter of punishing those whose guilt in masterminding and carrying out this criminal act is proved. Inflicting punishment, though imperative, will not, in my opinion, prevent the repetition of similar or even graver acts in future."
"We are facing a grave situation. We are seeing what could be described as a globalization of terrorism through the evil utilization of the revolution of technology and communications which We once thought could only be for the benefit of mankind. So we are all involved in an unconventional war for which We are not yet prepared."
"If anything, we have moved away from these ideals of a year ago we are a world in which liberties are increasingly restricted, where democracy is in retreat and where caution and isolation are replacing freedom and openness."
"The State of Qatar, along with all Islamic countries, has condemned the terrorist acts that took place on September 11th. This stand was explicitly expressed at the Emergency Meeting of the Organization of Islamic Conference Ministers of reign Affairs held in Doha last month. Our unanimous agreement on condemning what happened emanated from the values of our true religion, its sublime Sharia that is based on tolerance, justice, equality and cooperation among people, and forbids the taking of human life unjustly."
"Our peoples condemn and reject all attempts to distort the image of Islam, which is the last of divine messages, and those who abuse and terrorize its adherents and jeopardize their lives, dignity and interests."
"We have to put emphasis on the need to address the human tragedy of the people of Afghanistan. We feel it is our duty to come forward with every possible aid to these people, most of whom are living under extremely hard conditions, which in turn increases their sufferings which were already acute before the crisis brought upon them by the events of 11 September."
[Note: The Statement by MBEKI is significant for its cautious formulation, refusal to determine guilt or endorse such blame and the avoidance of terms such as "attack on" the U.S. The criminal aspect of the act overrides that of "act of aggression". He leaves himself an exit for the future]
H.E. MR THABO MBEKI
PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA
U.N. General Assembly Debate, 10 November 2001
"As has already been noted and as we all know, this General Debate has begun later than usual. The reason for this is because two months ago, the forces of terror struck at this city, New York, the Headquarters of this Organisation as well as Washington DC, the capital city of the United States of America.
It is proper that we take advantage of this occasion once more to convey our condolences and deepest sympathy to the people and government of the United States at the immense loss of life and property imposed on them through a callous act of murder. We extend the same sympathy to all other peoples who lost their citizens as a result of the colossal outrage of September 11."
"We speak also on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth."
"There can be no doubt but that the peoples of the world have to unite in action to defeat terrorism. There can be no hesitation among any of us in the resolve to work together to ensure that those responsible for the heinous actions of September 11 are brought to justice."
"Accordingly, we have no choice but to get together in the village square to agree on the threat that confronts us all. Together, in that village square, we have to determine what we do about this commonly defined threat. This is the ineluctable conclusion we must draw from the terrorist attacks of September 11."
"The challenge to unite the peoples of the world to fight the common threat of terrorism brings to the fore the need to speed up the transformation of the United Nations so that it is able to respond to the global challenges we face together, in an equitable manner. This means that it needs to be efficient, effective and responsive to the needs of humanity as a whole."
"September 11 emphasized the point that even as the democratic system of government is being consolidated throughout the world, even as we all work to sustain the possibility of a serious and meaningful global dialogue, there are some who are prepared to resort to force in pursuit of their goals."
"Immediately, it is correct that we must achieve global security cooperation so that the perpetrators of the September 11 acts of terrorism are apprehended and punished."
H.E. Mr. George W. Bush
U.N. General Assembly, 10 November 2001
Mr. Secretary General, Mr. President, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen:
We meet in a hall devoted to peace; in a city scarred by violence; in a Nation awakened to danger; in a world uniting for a long struggle. Every civilized nation here today is resolved to keep the most basic commitment of civilization: We will defend ourselves and our future against terror and lawless violence.
The United Nations was founded in this cause. In the Second World War, we learned that there is no isolation from evil. We affirmed that some crimes are so terrible they offend humanity itself. And we resolved that the aggressions and ambitions of the wicked must be opposed early, decisively, and collectively, before they threaten us all.
That evil has returned, and that cause is renewed.
A few miles from here, many thousands still lie in a tomb of rubble. Tomorrow the Secretary General, the President of the General Assembly, and I will visit that site, where the names of every nation and region that lost citizens will be read aloud. If we were to read the names of every person who died, it would take more than three hours.
Those names include a citizen of Gambia, whose wife spent their fourth wedding anniversary, September 12th, searching in vain for her husband. Those names include a man who supported his wife in Mexico, sending home money every week. Those names include a young Pakistani who prayed towards Mecca five times a day – and died that day trying to save others.
The suffering of September 11th was inflicted on people of many faiths and many nations. All of the victims, including Muslims, were killed with equal, indifference, and equal satisfaction by the terrorist leaders.
The terrorists are violating the tenets of every religion, including the one they invoke. Last week, the Sheikh of AI-Azhar University, the world’s oldest Islamic institution of higher learning, declared that terrorism is a "disease" and that "Islam prohibit[s] … killing … innocent civilians."
The terrorists call their cause holy, yet fund it with drug dealing. They encourage murder and suicide in the name of a great faith that forbids both. They dare to ask God’s blessing as they set out to kill innocent men, women, and children. But the God of Isaac and Ishmael would never answer such a prayer. And a murderer is not a martyr; he is just a murderer.
Time is passing. Yet for the United States of America, there will be no forgetting September 11 th. We will remember every rescuer who died with honor. We will remember every family that lives with grief. We will remember the fire and ash … the last phone calls … the funerals of the children.
And the people of my country will remember those who have plotted against us. We are learning their names. We are coming to know their faces. There is no corner of the earth distant or dark enough to protect them. However long it takes, their hour of justice will come.
Every nation has a stake in this cause. As we meet, the terrorists are planning more murder – perhaps in my country, perhaps in your own. They kill because they aspire to dominate. They seek to overthrow governments and destabilize entire regions. Last week, anticipating this meeting of the General Assembly, they denounced the United Nations; called our Secretary General a criminal; and condemned all Arab nations here as traitors to Islam. Few countries meet their exacting standards of brutality and oppression. Every other country is a potential target.
And all the world faces the most horrifying prospect of all: These same terrorists are searching for weapons of mass destruction – the tools to turn their hatred into holocaust. They can be expected to use chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons the moment they are capable of doing so. No hint of conscience would prevent it.
This threat cannot be ignored or appeased. Civilization itself – the civilization we share – is threatened. History will record our response – and judge or justify every nation in this hall.
The civilized world is now responding. We act to defend ourselves and deliver our children from a future of fear. We choose the dignity of life over a culture of death. We choose lawful change and civil disagreement over coercion, subversion, and chaos. These commitments – hope and order, law and life – unite people across cultures and continents. Upon these commitments depend all peace and progress. For these commitments, we are determined to fight.
The United Nations has risen to this responsibility: On the twelfth of. September, these buildings opened for emergency meetings of the General Assembly and the Security Council. Before the sun had set, these attacks on the world stood condemned by the world. Thank you for this strong and principled stand.
I also thank the Arab and Islamic countries that have condemned terrorist murder. Many of you have seen the destructive work of terror in your own lands. The terrorists are increasingly isolated by their own hatred and extremism. They cannot hide behind Islam. The authors of mass murder and their allies have no place in any culture, and no home in any faith.
The conspiracies of terror are being answered by an expanding global coalition. Not every nation will be part of every action against the enemy. But every nation in our coalition has duties. Those duties can be demanding, as we are learning in America. We have already made adjustments in our laws and in our daily lives. We are taking new measures to investigate terror and to protect against threats.
The leaders of all nations must now carefully consider their responsibilities and their future. Terrorist groups like al-Qaida depend upon the aid or indifference of governments. They need the support of a financial infrastructure, and safe havens to train and plan and hide.
Some nations want to play their part in the fight against terror, but tell us they lack the means to enforce their laws and control their borders. We stand ready to help.
Some governments still turn a blind eye to the terrorists, hoping the threat will pass them by. They are mistaken.
And some governments, while pledging to uphold the principles of the UN, have cast their lot with the terrorists. They support them and harbor them. And they will find that their welcomed guests are parasites that will weaken and consume them. For every regime that sponsors terror, there is a price to be paid – and it will be paid. The allies of terror are equally guilty of murder, and equally accountable to justice.
The Taliban are now learning this lesson. That regime, and the terrorists who support it, are now virtually indistinguishable. Together, they promote terror abroad and impose a reign of terror on the Afghan people. Women are executed in Kabul’s soccer stadium. They can be beaten for wearing socks that are too thin. Men are jailed for missing prayer meetings.
The United States, supported by many nations, is bringing justice to terrorists in Afghanistan. We are making progress against military targets – and that is our objective. Unlike the enemy, we seek to minimize, not maximize, the loss of innocent life. I am proud of the honorable conduct of the American military. And my country grieves for all the suffering the Taliban have brought upon Afghanistan, including the terrible burden of war.
The Afghan people do not deserve their present rulers. Years of Taliban misrule have brought nothing but misery and starvation. Even before this current crisis, four million Afghans depended on food from the United States and other nations, and millions of Afghans were refugees from Taliban oppression.
I make this promise to all the victims of that regime: the Taliban’s days of harboring terrorists, and dealing in heroin, and brutalizing women are drawing to a close. And when that regime is gone, the people of Afghanistan will say, with the rest of the world: Good riddance.
I can promise, too, that America will join the world in helping the people of Afghanistan rebuild their country.
Many nations, including mine, are sending food and medicine to’ help Afghans through the winter. America has airdropped over 1.3 million packages of rations into Afghanistan. Just this week we airlifted 20,000 blankets ,and over 200 tons of provisions into the region. We continue to provide humanitarian aid, even while the Taliban try to steal the food we send.
More help, eventually, will be needed. The United States will work closely with the United Nations and development banks to reconstruct Afghanistan after hostilities there have ceased and the Taliban are no longer in control. And the United States will work with the UN to support a post-Taliban government that represents all of the Afghan people.
In this war against terrorism, each of us must answer for what we have done:, and for what we have left undone. After tragedy, there is a time for sympathy and condolence. My country has been very grateful for both. The memorials and vigils around the world will not be forgotten. But the time for sympathy has now passed, and the time for action has arrived.
The most basic obligations in this new conflict have already been defined by the United Nations. On September 28th, the Security Council adopted Resolution 1373. Its requirements are clear:
Every United Nations member has a responsibility to crack down on terrorist financing. We must pass all necessary laws in our own countries to allow the confiscation of terrorist assets. We must apply those laws to every financial institution in every nation.
We have a responsibility to share intelligence and coordinate the efforts of law enforcement. If you know something, tell us. If we know something, we will tell you. And when we find the terrorists, let’s work together to bring them to justice.
We have a responsibility to deny any sanctuary, safe haven, or . transit to terrorists. Every known terrorist camp must be shut down, its operators apprehended, and evidence of their arrest presented to the United Nations.
We have a responsibility to deny weapons to terrorists – and to actively prevent private citizens from providing them.
These obligations are urgent, and they are binding on every nation with a place in this chamber. Many governments are taking these obligations seriously, and my country appreciates it. Yet even beyond Resolution 1373, more is required – and more is expected – of our coalition against terror. We are asking for a comprehensive commitment to this fight.
We must unite in opposing all terrorists, not just some of them. In this world there are good causes and bad causes, and we may disagree on where that line is drawn. Yet there is no such thing as a good terrorist. No national aspiration, no remembered wrong, can ever justify the deliberate murder of the innocent. Any government that rejects this principle – trying to pick and choose its terrorist friends – will know the consequences.
We must speak the truth about terror. Let us never tolerate outrageous conspiracy theories concerning the attacks of September 11th – malicious lies that attempt to shift blame away from the terrorists themselves, away from the guilty. To inflame ethnic hatred is to advance the cause of terror. And no government should promote the propaganda of terrorists.
The war against terror must not serve ,as an excuse to persecute ethnic and religious minorities in any country. Innocent people must be allowed to live their own lives, by their own customs, under their own religion. And every nation must have avenues for the peaceful expression of opinion and dissent. When these avenues are closed, the temptation to speak through violence grows.
We must press on with our agenda for peace and prosperity in every land. My country is pledged to encouraging development and expanding trade. My country is pledged to investing in education and combating AIDS and other infectious diseases around the world. Following September 11 th, these pledges are even more important. In our struggle against hateful groups that exploit poverty and despair, we must offer an alternative of opportunity and hope.
The, American government also stands by its commitment to a just peace in the Middle East. We are working toward a day when two states – Israel and Palestine – live peacefully together, within secure and recognized borders, as called for by Security Council resolutions. We will do all in our power to bring both parties back into negotiations. But peace will only come when all have sworn off – forever – incitement, violence, and terror.
Finally, this struggle is a defining moment for the United Nations itself – and the world needs its principled leadership. It undermines the credibility of this great institution, for example, when the Commission on Human Rights offers seats to some of the world’s most persistent violators. of human rights. The United Nations depends, above all, on its moral authority – and that authority must be preserved.
The steps I have described will not be easy. For all nations, they will require effort. For some nations, they will require great courage. Yet the cost of inaction is far greater. The only alternative to victory is a nightmare world, where every city is a potential killing field.
As I told the American people, freedom and fear are at war. We face enemies that hate, not our policies,-but our existence – the tolerance and openness and creative culture that define us. But the outcome of this conflict is certain.
There is a current in history, and it runs toward freedom. Our enemies resent it and dismiss it, but the dreams of mankind are defined by liberty – the natural right to create, and build, and worship, and live in dignity. When men and women are released from oppression and isolation, they find fulfillment and hope, and they leave poverty by the millions. These aspirations are lifting up the peoples of Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas, and they can lift up all of the Islamic world. We stand for the permanent hopes of humanity, and those hopes will not be denied.
We are confident, too, that history has an Author, Who fills time and eternity with His purpose. We know that evil is real, but good will prevail against it. This is the teaching of many faiths. And in that assurance, we gain strength for a long journey.
It is our task – the task of this generation – to provide the response to aggression and terror. We have no other choice, because there is no other peace. We did not ask for this mission, yet there is honor in history’s call. We have a chance to write the story of our times – a story of courage defeating cruelty, and of light overcoming darkness. This calling is worthy of any life, and worthy of every nation. So let us go forward – confident, determined, and unafraid.
Mr. Fernando Henrique Cardoso
President of the Federative Republic of Brazil
U.N. General Assembly, 10 November 2001
"Only fanatics fail to acknowledge the great mission undertaken by the United Nations and by Kofi Annan."
"This September in New York, as well as in Washington, was marked by the very denial of this dialogue and understanding between peoples: the senseless violence resulting from an odious and treacherous attack against the United States of America and against all peace and freedom-loving peoples."
"Brazil extends it full solidarity and support to the people of the United States in its response to terrorism…The Charter of the United Nations acknowledges the right of Member States to act in self-defense."
"Yet terrorism must not be allowed to stifle the debate on cooperation and other issues of global interest.
The road to the future requires that the forces of globalization be harnessed in the pursuit of lasting peace, a peace sustained not by fear, but rather by the willing acceptance by all countries of a just international order."
Truth – Justice – Peace