To the NATO Press Office,
On NATO’s web site a Statement by the North Atlantic Council is posted (at http://www.nato.int/docu/pr/2001/p01-124e.htm). This Statement contains the following clause:
“The Council agreed that if it is determined that this attack was directed from abroad against the United States, it shall be regarded as an action covered by Article 5 of the Washington Treaty, which states that an armed attack against one or more of the Allies in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all.”
I understand that on October 2, 2001 the Council heard a presentation by the US Ambassador to NATO in which evidence was presented that the attack of September 11, 2001 “was directed from abroad against the United States”, more specifically from Afghanistan. On that base the NATO Council formally invoked Article 5 of the Atlantic Charter.
I have a couple of questions in this regard:
1. What the factual base on which the NATO Council determined that the attack of September 11, 2001 “was directed from abroad against the United States” and specifically from Afghanistan?
2. Is it correct, as reported in the New York Times, that the presentation to the Council was entirely oral and that no evidentiary documentation was distributed to the members of the Council?
I would be most thankful for your response, which would be useful in my research in the field of international relations and international law.
15 December 2006